- Different languages use different sets of sounds to speak (Karpiński)
- Consonants are classified based on voicing, place of articulation, and manner of articulation (Wagner)
- "Voicing is whether the vocal folds vibrate or not. The sound /s/ is called voiceless because there is no vibration, and the sound /z/ is called voiced because the vocal folds do vibrate" (Wagner)
- "[Place of articulation] is the location of where sounds are produced" (Giordano)
- Manner of articulation is how sounds are produced (Giordano)
- "[Vowels] are classified according to height of the tongue, part of tongue involved, and position of the lips" (Wagner)
International Phonetic Alphabet
- "IPA is a phonetic notation system that uses a set of symbols to represent each distinct sound that exists in human spoken language" ("International Phonetic Alphabet")
- The International Phonetic Alphabet can be used to describe all languages on Earth ("International Phonetic Alphabet")
- Examples of IPA transcriptions of English words (in my dialect):
- apple - /ˈæp.l/
- thesis - /ˈθi.səs/
- reaction - /ɹiˈæk.ʃən/
- change - /t͡ʃe͡ɪnd͡ʒ/
- writing - /ˈɹa͡ɪd.ɪŋ/
phonetics manner place articulation sounds voicing vowel consonant international alphabet transcription classification speak
“International Phonetic Alphabet.” International Phonetic Alphabet – IPA Charts, Keyboards and Language Information, www.internationalphoneticalphabet.org/.
Karpiński, Maciej. “The Sounds of Language.” Languages In Danger The Sounds of Language Comments, languagesindanger.eu/book-of-knowledge/the-sounds-of-language/.
Wagner, Dr. Jennifer. “What Is Phonetics?” Ielanguages.com, ielanguages.com/phonetics.html.